With the rapid development of the times, more and more translators are used in our daily life. Many people choose Beijing Translation Company when they are working as translators. Do you know what should be paid attention to when we are working in English, Zedong and Chinese?
A Contrastive Study of the Language Characteristics of English-Chinese Translation
英语和汉语分属于不同语系，英语属于印欧语系(Intlo - European lan?guage Family )， 是拼音语言， 而汉语属于汉藏语系 ( Chinese - Tibetan lan- guage family )，是表意的语言(ideography )，所分属的语系不同也就导致了英 汉两种语言的差别。对于广大应试四、六级的考生来说，如果平时学习中 了解英汉语言特点，在翻译应试中能满足翻译标准--“信、达、雅”即忠实 准确、通顺流畅和贴切原文，这对于想要取得较高翻译分数会有很大帮助， 下面本文就将对英汉语言的特点从下几个方面作对比。
English and Chinese belong to different lan guage families. English belongs to Intlo - European lan? Guage Family, which is Pinyin language, while Chinese belongs to Chinese - Tibetan Lan - guage family, which is ideographic language. The different language families lead to the difference between English and Chinese. For the majority of CET-4 and CET-6 candidates, if they understand the characteristics of English and Chinese in their daily study, they can meet the translation criteria - "faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance", i.e. faithfulness, accuracy, fluency and appropriateness of the original text. This will be very helpful for them to get a higher translation score. The following article will compare the characteristics of English and Chinese from the following aspects.
1. English prefers static words, while Chinese prefers dynamic words.
英语喜欢使用静态词汇，具体体现在较多的使用名词和形容词。而汉 语则多使用动态词汇例如动词连用等。因此英译汉时常常把原文中表示 动作意义的静态叙述转换成汉语的动态叙述。
English likes to use static vocabulary, which is embodied in the use of nouns and adjectives. In Chinese, dynamic words such as verb conjunction are often used. Therefore, when translating from English to Chinese, the static narrative expressing the action meaning in the original text is often transformed into the dynamic narrative in Chinese.
(1)He is a goodealerand a good sleeper.(名词)
(1) He is a good dealer and a good sleeper.
He can eat and sleep.
(2)The computer is a far more carefuland inHustriousinspector than human beings.(形容词)
(2) The computer is a far more careful and in Hustriousinspector than human beings. (adjective)
Computers are more careful and diligent than people. (verb)
从上面例句，不难看出汉语倾向于多用动词，英语倾向于多用名词、介 词、形容词和副词等来表达动作意义。认识英汉不同词类或用词倾向，这 对于提高翻译质量很有帮助，能够使译文更加通顺、确切。
From the above examples, it is not difficult to see that Chinese tends to use more verbs, while English tends to use more nouns, prepositions, adjectives and adverbs to express the action meaning. Understanding the different parts of speech or word tendencies between English and Chinese is helpful to improve the quality of translation and make the translation more smooth and accurate.
2. English and Chinese emphasize person
英语较常用物称表达法，即不用人称主语来叙述，而是表达客观事物 如何作用于人的感知，让事物以客观的口气呈现出来。汉语则注重主体思 维，往往从自我出发来叙述客观事物，或倾向于描述人及其行为或状态。 汉语也常常隐含人称或省略人称。
English is more commonly used in nominal expression, that is, it does not use personal subject to describe, but to express how objective things act on people's perception, so that things can be presented in an objective tone. Chinese pays attention to subjective thinking, and often narrates objective things from self, or tends to describe people and their behavior or state. Chinese also often implies or omits personal names.
(1 ) An ideasuddenlv struck me !
(1) An ideasuddenlv struck me!
An idea suddenly struck me.
(2)1949 sawthe founding of the People Republic of China.
(2) 1949 saw the founding of the People Republic of China.
New China was founded in 1949.
(3 ) Worrlsfail me I 我(吓得)就是说不出话来!
(3) Worrlsfail me I just can't speak!
在(1)、(2)、(3)句中英文句子的主语分别是“An idea” “1949”和 “ Words”，汉语句子中的主语分别是“我”“新中国”和“我”，英文句子中使 用的主语都是没有生命的物体、抽象的实物或者概念作为主语，对应的中 文表达则是从自我出发来叙述客观事物，并倾向于描述人极其行为或者状态。
In (1), (2) and (3) sentences, the subjects of English sentences are "An idea", "1949" and "Words". In Chinese sentences, the subjects are "I", "New China" and "I". The subjects used in English sentences are inanimate objects, abstract objects or concepts as subjects, while the corresponding Chinese expressions are self-narrative and tend to describe objective things. In describing a person's extreme behavior or state.
3. Hypotaxis in English and Parataxis in Chinese
相对于汉语来说，英语是一种更加注重形式化的语言，主要体现在运 用词汇来联系各个分句，如我们熟知的“and”用来表示并列连接;“if”用来 表示假设条件关系;“because”用来表示因果关系，虽然说汉语句式也有一 定数量的连接词连接，但是使用频率较之英语小得多。在汉语中，我们通 常不用或者少用连接词来表达意思，英汉两种语言的这种区别就是我们所 说的形合——强调结构的完整性和形态的严谨性，结构严密紧凑，主次分 明;意合——强调内容和表意的完整性，靠语意的逻辑将句子串起。为了 更加清楚明了，我们试举几个例句：
Compared with Chinese, English is a language that pays more attention to formalization, which is mainly embodied in the use of vocabulary to connect clauses, such as "and" which we are familiar with to denote juxtaposition, if which denotes hypothetical conditional relations, and "because" which denotes causality. Although Chinese sentences also have a certain number of conjunctive connections, they are used more frequently than English sentences. Much smaller. In Chinese, we usually do not use conjunctions to express meanings or less. The difference between English and Chinese is what we call hypotaxis, which emphasizes the integrity of structure and form, the compactness of structure and the clarity of primary and secondary; parataxis, which emphasizes the integrity of content and meaning, and links sentences together by the logic of meaning. To make it clearer, let's give a few examples:
(1) Can run monks, (but) can not run temples.
The monks may run away , hut the temple cannot run away with him .
The monks may run away, hut the temple cannot run away with him.
(2)Although he has aged physically , he remains young at heart.
(2) Although he has aged physically, he remains young at heart.
Other people are old, but their hearts are not old.
在例句(1)和(2)中斜体字下划线的单词“ but”和“ Although”所要表达 的意思和逻辑关系体现在汉语句子的括号中，这正表明英语语言符号之间 有较强的逻辑关系，而我们中文习惯的表达则是省略了括号内的字词，靠 语意的逻辑将句子连接起来，连词介词都少于英语。
In example sentences (1) and (2), the meaning and logical relationship expressed by the italic underlined words "but" and "although" are reflected in the brackets of Chinese sentences, which just shows that there is a strong logical relationship between English language symbols, while the expression of our Chinese habit is to omit the words in brackets and connect sentences by the logic of meaning, and the conjunction prepositions are less than those in English. 。
2. The Characteristics of English-Chinese Translation and the Points for Attention in Translation
1. English and Chinese are two languages with great differences. English overlaps with hypotaxis and Chinese overlaps with parataxis. Some people compare English sentences to "woods with dense trees and tangled branches". The context is difficult to analyze and the primary and secondary are difficult to distinguish. Chinese sentences are compared to "bamboo forests with distinct branches". The context is clear and the primary and secondary are easy to distinguish. In translation, according to the habit of expression, the sentence structures of English and Chinese sometimes need to be transformed accordingly.
2. Emphasis is laid on the common methods of sentence translation: positive and negative, negative expressions, clauses and compound sentences.
3. The temporal and logical order between the subject and the subordinate clauses in English-Chinese compound sentences is not entirely the same. Therefore, in translation, it is often necessary to adjust the sentence order according to the expression habits. Modern translation theory holds that sentences are the most important