With the rapid economic development, English has been widely used in many countries. As a member of Beijing translation company, we must master the characteristics of English translation skillfully. Then let Beijing translation company introduce it to you in detail!
English belongs to the Indo European language family, while Chinese belongs to the Sino Tibetan language family. Therefore, there must be many differences between the two languages. The most difficult part of English translation is usually the difference between the two languages. Chinese belongs to the Sino Tibetan language family, with about 1.5 billion users. It is the official language of mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and Singapore. It is also one of the six working languages of the United Nations. It is mainly distributed in China, Singapore, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries, as well as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and overseas Chinese communities.
Due to the differences of culture, thinking and development environment, English and Chinese have their own distinct characteristics. Therefore, in order to successfully complete English translation, we must master the characteristics of the two languages and find out the similarities and differences through comparison, so as to better guide English translation. This paper will start with the example sentences, through exploring the differences between the two languages, looking for the methods and characteristics of English translation.
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1、 There are many nouns in English translation. Chinese multi verbs
It is not difficult to find out when reading English documents, especially official documents, that the frequency of nouns in English is very high, and it is often necessary to translate English nouns into Chinese verbs in order to make the translation more fluent and authentic.
例一：We are afraid that the current slowdown will turninto a global slump．
Example 1: we are already that the current slow down will turn into a global slop
We are afraid that the current economic slowdown will turn into a global recession.
Analysis: slowdown in the original sentence is transformed into the verb "slow down" in English translation, which is equivalent to the verb phrase "slow down" in the noun "slow down". In the original sentence, slop is translated as "recession", which has the meaning of the verb "slump". In this way, it is very common for English nouns to be converted into Chinese verbs. Proper conversion can make the original text more fluent.
例二：I’m a supporter of the nuclear power plant．汉译：我支持修建核电站。
I'm a supporter of the nuclear power plant.
Analysis: in the original sentence, supporter is a noun, but if the invariant part of speech is directly translated into "I am a supporter of nuclear power plant", it will have an obvious translation cavity, because in Chinese, it can directly say "I support the construction of nuclear power plant".
2、 The treatment of inflectional forms in English translation
English is a kind of inflectional language. The main inflectional forms include tenses, possessives, singular and plural nouns, etc. These characteristics should be paid attention to in translation. It is very important for English translation to deal with English inflectional forms properly.
1. The change of tense in English translation
English expresses the change of tense by the change of word form, while Chinese achieves the same effect by the help of time adverbs and temporal auxiliaries.
例三：I loved you．
Example 3: I lost you
I loved you.
Analysis: this example is very simple, but it can fully show that inflectional changes in English word tenses can be used to represent things that happen at different times. Love is the past tense, which means that the action takes place in the past. When translating into Chinese, we can achieve the goal by adding words. In Chinese, there are some words to express the past: time adverb Zeng (Jing), tense auxiliary Guo, Le, etc.
例四：Luckily，inequality and fairness have moved right up the political agenda．
Example 4: lucky, equality and failure have moved right up the political agenda
Fortunately, eliminating injustice and safeguarding justice have been put on the political agenda.
Analysis: the "have moved" in the original sentence means that something has happened when it is finished. Chinese translation needs to increase the time adverb "already" to achieve the same effect, so we should pay attention to the change of tense in English translation.
2. English possessive in English translation
英语中的所有格常常以名词+’S的形式出现，表示所属关系。在汉译时可以用不同的方式进行处理。例五：Today is yesterday’s pupil．汉译：昨日乃今天之师。
Possessive case in English often appears in the form of noun + 's, indicating the relationship of ownership. In Chinese translation, it can be handled in different ways. Yesterday is yesterday's teacher.
Analysis: yesterday's in the original sentence means a kind of affiliation, that is, there is a kind of teacher-student relationship between yesterday and today. Of course, it can also be translated into "yesterday is today's teacher", but the original sentence is a proverb, so we can learn from such expressions as "failure is the mother of success".
当然，有时所有格不必译出。例六：Mother’s Day isn’t enough to make up for what mother hod costs．
Of course, sometimes the possessive case does not have to be translated. Example 6: mother's Day isn't enough to make up for what mother method costs
Celebrating mother's Day is not enough to make up for the sacrifice of being a mother.
分析：这里的Mother‘S Day虽然存在所有格形式，但依据习惯译为“母亲节”即可，因为母亲节就是母亲的节日。类似的还有Teachers’D ay(教师节)，April Fools’Day(愚人节)，New Year’S Day(元旦)等等。
Analysis: Although there is a possessive form of mother's day here, it can be translated into "mother's Day" according to habits, because mother's Day is the mother's day. Similarly, teachers' day, April Fools' day, new year's day, etc.
3. The changes of singular and plural nouns in English translation
例七：During the crisis，big companies started to lay off employees．汉译：经济危机期间，各大公司纷纷开始裁员。
During the crisis, big companies started to lay off employees.
Analysis: English companies are plural forms, while Chinese can't express the plural concept through the change of vocabulary itself. Therefore, English translation needs the help of adding words. As in the above translation, the concept of plural number is expressed by "each" and "one after another". The plural number of employees has been reflected in "downsizing", because "downsizing" in Chinese contains more than one meaning.
In fact, the word "men" in Chinese can be added after pronouns or nouns referring to people to indicate plural. Equivalent effect